The Italian version of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire: psychometric properties and validation in students, community, and clinical groups

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Giorgio Falgares *
Sandro De Santis
Salvatore Gullo
Danilo Carrozzino
Daniela Marchetti
Maria Cristina Verrocchio
Gianluca Lo Coco
Daniel Kopala-Sibley
Osmano Oasi
(*) Corresponding Author:
Giorgio Falgares |


The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Italian validation of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), conceived as a measure of self-criticism and dependency, i.e. two personality factors acting, according to Blatt (2004), as risk factors for depression in particular and psychopathology in general. A series of standardized measures [Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), DEQ, Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, 3rd edition (MCMI-III)] was administered to three samples (i.e., students, community and clinical). Factorial validity was evaluated along with convergent and predictive validity. In order to evaluate the reliability and internal consistency, a specific subgroup of participants was retested on the DEQ and BDI-II. Results showed correlations between DEQ dimensions and some personality traits of the MCMI-III. The traditional three-factor model of the DEQ structure as identified by principal component analysis appears to be as stable factors as typically found in American samples, although some items showed elevated cross-loading or low loadings on any factor. Clinical and diagnostic implications of the findings will be discussed.

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