Introducing the QACP: development and preliminary validation of an instrument to measure psychotherapist’s core competencies

Submitted: November 23, 2021
Accepted: May 29, 2022
Published: August 1, 2022
Abstract Views: 1913
PDF: 765
HTML: 171
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

The movement towards the conceptualization, description and evaluation of psychotherapists’ competencies has been widely developed in the last years and has relevant implications for psychotherapy, training, and continuous education. In Italy, this movement has been supported by the Committee for Psychotherapists’ Competencies established in 2010 by FIAP (Italian Federation of Psychotherapy’s Associations) and CNSP (National Association of Psychotherapy’s Training Institutes) and has involved more than 1000 psychotherapists from different approaches, by means of conferences, expert meetings, workshops, and focus groups. One of the outcomes of this process has been the development of a new self-assessment tool for core competencies (i.e., those that are shared by therapists from all modalities): the QACP (Questionario per l’Autovalutazione delle Competenze dello Psicoterapeuta). The present study aims to present the process of development and the preliminary proofs of the validity of this tool. Construct and knowngroup validity of the questionnaire were examined, and reliability was estimated by computing the internal consistency reliability coefficients for both the overall and the subscale scores. Overall, the instrument showed satisfactory psychometric characteristics. The limitations of the study and the results are discussed and directions for further research are proposed.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations

Aherne, D., Smith, L., Whelan, N., Hickey, L., Kirwan, C., & Coffey, A. M. (2018). Comparing competencies of a psychotherapist with those of a psychologist specialising in psychotherapy. European Journal of Psychotherapy & Counselling, 20(3), 294-311. doi:10.1080/13642537.2018.1495244. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13642537.2018.1495244
American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics: As approved by the ACA governing council. Retrieved from: https://www.counseling.org/resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119221548.ch7
American Psychological Association. (2004). Guidelines for psychological practice with older adults. American Psychologist, 59(4), 236-260. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.59.4.236. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.4.236
American Psychological Association. (2006). Report of the APA task force on the assessment of competence in professional psychology. Washington, DC.: Author.
American Psychological Association. (2007). 2006 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. American Psychologist, 62(5), 339-370. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.5.339. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.5.339
American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/
Athey, T. R., & Orth, M. S. (1999). Emerging competency methods for the future. Human Resource Management: Published in Cooperation with the School of Business Administration, The University of Michigan and in alliance with the Society of Human Resources Management, 38(3), 215-225. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-050X(199923)38:3<215::AID-HRM4>3.0.CO;2-W. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-050X(199923)38:3<215::AID-HRM4>3.0.CO;2-W
Barber, J. P., Sharpkess, B. A., Klostermann, S., & McCarthy, K. S. (2007). Assessing intervention competence and its relation to therapy outcome: A selected review derived from the outcome literature. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38(5), 493. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.38.5.493. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.38.5.493
Barlow, I., & Brown, R. J. (2020). A systematic review of measures of therapist competence in psychodynamic, interpersonal, and/or relational models. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 93, 408-427. doi:10.1111/papt.12231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12231
Barnett, J. E., Doll, B., Younggren, J. N., & Rubin, N. J. (2007). Clinical competence for practicing psychologists: Clearly a work in progress. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38(5), 510-517. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.38.5.510. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.38.5.510
Belar, C., Brown, R. A., Hersch, L. E., Hornyak, L. M., Rozensky, R. H., Sheridan, E. P., & Reed, G. W. (2001). Self-assessment in clinical health psychology: A model for ethical expansion of practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32(2), 135-141. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.32.2.135. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.32.2.135
Benjamin Jr, L. T. (2001). American psychology’s struggles with its curriculum: Should a thousand flowers bloom? American Psychologist, 56(9), 735. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.56.9.735. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.9.735
Bourg, E. F., Bent, R. J., Callan, J. E., Jones, N. F., McHolland, J. E., & Stricker, G. E. (1987). Standards and evaluation in the education and training of professional psychologists: Knowledge, attitudes, and skills. In Mission Bay Conference, Dec, 1986, Mission Bay, San Diego, CA, US. Transcript Press.
Bourg, E. F., Bent, R. J., McHolland, J., & Stricker, G. (1989). Standards and evaluation in the education and training of professional psychologists: The National Council of Schools of Professional Psychology Mission Bay conference. American Psychologist, 44(1), 66-72. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.44.1.66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.1.66
Bowden, J. A., & Masters, G. N. (1993). Implications for higher education of a competency-based approach to education and training. Australian Government Pub. Service.
BPS (British Psychological Society). (2005). The register of psychologist specialising in psychotherapy: Principles and procedures. Leicester, UK: British Psychological Society (BPS) publication.
Brosan, L., Reynolds, S., & Moore, R. G. (2008). Self-evaluation of cognitive therapy performance: Do therapists know how competent they are? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36(5), 581-587. doi:10.1017/S1352465808004438. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465808004438
Brown, G. T. L., & Harris, L. R. (2013). Student self-assessment. In J. McMillan (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of research on classroom assessment (pp. 367-393). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452218649.n21
Burke, J. W. (Ed.). (1990). Competency based education and training. Bristol: Falmer Press.
Burnham, K. P., & Anderson, D. R. (2002). A practical information-theoretic approach. Model selection and multimodel inference, 2, 70-71.
Callan, J. E., Peterson, D. R., & Stricker, G. (Eds.). (1986). Quality in professional psychology training: A national conference and self-study. American Psychological Association. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/10558-000
Caverzagie, K. J., Shea, J. A., & Kogan, J. R. (2008). Resident identification of learning objectives after performing self-assessment based upon the ACGME core competencies. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23, 1024-7. doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0571-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-008-0571-7
Chiles, J. A., Lambert, M. J., & Hatch, A. L. (1999). The impact of psychological interventions on medical cost offset: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 6(2), 204. doi:10.1093/clipsy.6.2.204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.6.2.204
Cortelazzo, M., Zolli, P. (1983). Dizionario etimologico della lingua italiana. Zanichelli, Bologna.
Davis, D. A., Mazmanian, P. E., Fordis, M., Van Harrison, R., Thorpe, K. E., & Perrier, L (2006). Accuracy of physician self-assessment compared with observed measures of competence: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(9), 1094-102. doi:10.1001/jama.296.9.1094. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.296.9.1094
Demyan, A. L., Abraham, C. M., & Bui, N. H. (2018). Trainees looking through the lens of a supervisor: Remediation and gatekeeping responses to hypothetical problems of professional competency. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 46(1), 67-80. doi:10.1080/01926187.2018.1428128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01926187.2018.1428128
Dennhag, I., & Ybrandt, H. (2013). Trainee psychotherapists’ development in self-rated professional qualities in training. Psychotherapy, 50(2), 158-166. doi:10.1037/a0033045. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033045
Di Maria, F., & Formica, I. (2009). Self-referentiality in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Rivista di Psicologia Clinica, 2.
Dunning, D., Heath, C., & Suls, J. (2004). Flawed self-assessment: Implications for health, education, and the workplace. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5(3), 69-106. doi:10.1111/j.1529-1006.2004.00018.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-1006.2004.00018.x
EACLIPT Task Force On ‘Competences of Clinical Psychologists’. (2019). Competences of clinical psychologists. Clinical Psychology in Europe, 1(2), 1-9. doi:10.32872/cpe.v1i2.35551. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32872/cpe.v1i2.35551
Epstein, R. M., & Hundert, E. M. (2002). Defining and assessing professional competence. Jama, 287(2), 226-235. doi:10.1001/jama.287.2.226. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.287.2.226
European Association for Gestalt Therapy (EAGT). (2013). Professional competencies and quality standards: specific competencies of Gestalt Therapists. [Authors: Vidakovic, I., Zeleskov-Djoric, J., Roubal, J., van Baalen, D., Francesetti, G., & Wimmer, B.] Available from: https://www.eagt.org/joomla/images/PDF/Competencies/PC&QS%20-%20competencies.pdf
European Association of Psychotherapist (EAP) Working Group. (2012). The Professional competencies of a European psychotherapist (2012). Available from: http://www.psychotherapy-competency.eu/Literature_Review/index.php
European Association of Psychotherapist (EAP). (2013). The Core Competencies of A European Psychotherapist. Available from: https://www.europsyche.org/app/uploads/2019/05/Final-Core-Competencies-v-3-3_July2013.pdf
Eva, K. W., & Regehr, G. (2005). Self-assessment in the health professions: A reformulation and research agenda. Academic Medicine, 80(10), S46-S54. doi:10.1097/00001888-200510001-00015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200510001-00015
Evers, O., Schröder-Pfeifer, P., Möller, H., & Taubner, S. (2022). The competence development of German psychotherapy trainees: A naturalistic, longitudinal and multidimensional outcome study, Psychotherapy Research, 32(4), 539-553. doi: 10.1080/10503307.2021.1950939. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10503307.2021.1950939
Fairburn, C. G., & Cooper, Z. (2011). Therapist competence, therapy quality, and therapist training. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(6-7), 373-378. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2011.03.005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2011.03.005
Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2007). Competence in competency-based supervision practice: Constructs and application. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 68(2), 177-193. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.38.3.232. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.38.3.232
Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2012). The importance of competency-based clinical supervision and training in the twenty-first century: Why bother? Jorunal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 42(3), 129-137. doi:10.1007/s10879-011-9198-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10879-011-9198-9
Federazione italiana delle Associazioni di Psicoterapia (FIAP). (2012). Le competenze professionali dello psicoterapeuta. Le competenze di base. Available from: http://www.fiap.info/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/competenze-professionali.pdf
Fletcher, C. E., & Bailey, C. (2003). Assessing self-awareness: Some issues and methods. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(5), 395-404. doi:10.1108/02683940310484008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940310484008
Fouad, N. A., & Grus, C. L. (2014). Competency-Based Education and training in professional psychology, In W. B. Johnson, & N. Kaslow (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Education and Training in Professional Psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Francesetti G. (2013), Verso la definizione delle competenze dello psicoterapeuta, In Zucconi A. (a cura di), La formazione in psicoterapia, Alpes, Roma, pp. 131-146.
Gaubatz, M. D., & Vera, E. M. (2006). Trainee competence in master’s level counseling programs: A comparison of counselor educator’s and student’s views. Counselor Education & Supervision, 46, 32-43. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6978.2006.tb00010.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6978.2006.tb00010.x
Halonen, J. S., Appleby, D. C., Brewer, C. L., Buskist, W., Gillem, A. R., Halpern, D., & Braswell, M. (2002). Undergraduate psychology major: Learning goals and outcomes. Report of the Task Force on Undergraduate Psychology Major Competencies. American Psychological Association Board of Educational Affairs. Retrieved December, 13, 2003.
Harkin, B., Webb, T. L., Chang, B. P., Prestwich, A., Conner, M., Kellar, I., & Sheeran, P. (2016). Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological bulletin, 142(2), 198. doi:10.1037/bul0000025. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000025
Hatcher, R. L., Fouad, N. A., Campbell, L. F., McCutcheon, S. R., Grus, C. L., & Leahy (2013). Competency-based education for professional psychology: Moving from concept to practice. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 7(4), 225-234. doi:10.1037/a0033765. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033765
Hatcher, R. L., Fouad, N. A., Grus, C. L., Campbell, L. F., McCutcheon, S. R., & Leahy, K. L. (2013). Competency benchmarks: Practical steps toward a culture of competence. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 7(2), 84-91. doi:10.1037/a0029401. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029401
Herman, H., & Jané-Llopis, E. (2012). The status of mental health promotion. Public Health Reviews, 34(2), 1-21. doi:10.1007/BF03391674. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391674
Hitzeman, C., Gonsalvez, C. J., Britt, E., & Moses, K. (2020). Clinical psychology trainees’ self-versus supervisor assessments of practitioner competencies. Clinical Psychologist, 24(1), 18-29. doi:10.1111/cp.12183. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/cp.12183
Hoge, M. A., Paris, M., Adger, H. J., Collins Jr, F. L., Finn, C. V., Fricks, L., & Young, A. (2005). Workforce competencies in behavioral health: An overview. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 32(5), 593-631. doi:10.1007/s10488-005-3259-x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-005-3259-x
Horn, J., DeMers, S. T., Lightfoot, S., & Webb, C. (2019). Using continuing professional development to improve maintenance of professional competence: A call for change in licensure renewal requirements. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 50(2), 120-128. doi:10.1037/pro0000233. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/pro0000233
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
Hughes, G. (2014). Competence and Self-Care in Counseling and Psychotherapy. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315814407
Humphreys, L., Crino, R., & Wilson, I. (2018). The competencies movement: Origins, limitations, and future directions. Clinical Psychologists, 22(3), 290-299. doi:10.1111/cp.12143. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/cp.12143
Hunter, E., & Schwartz-Mette, R. (2021). Competence problems for psychologists across the career lifespan. Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-818697-8.00103-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-818697-8.00103-5
Jané-Llopis, E., Barry, M., Hosman, C., & Patel, V. (2005). Mental health promotion works: A review. Promotion & Education, 12(2_suppl), 9-25. doi:10.1177/10253823050120020103x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/10253823050120020103x
Karpen, S. C. (2018). The social psychology of biased self-assessment. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 82(5), 6299. doi:10.5688/ajpe6299. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6299
Kaslow, N. J. (2004). Competencies in professional psychology. American psychologist, 59(8), 774-781. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.59.8.774. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.8.774
Kaslow, N. J., Borden, K. A., Collins, F. L., Forrest, L., Illfelder-Kaye, J., Nelson, P. D., & Willmuth, M. E. (2004). Competencies conference: Future directions in education and credentialing in professional psychology. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60(7), 699-712. doi:10.1002/jclp.20016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20016
Kaslow, N. J., Grus, C. L., Allbaugh, L. J., Shen-Miller, D., Bodner, K. E., Veilleux, J., & Van Sickle, K. (2018). Trainees with competence problems in the professionalism domain. Ethics & Behavior, 28(6), 429-449. doi:10.1080/10508422.2018.1438897. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10508422.2018.1438897
Kaslow, N. J., Grus, C. L., Campbell, L. F., Fouad, N. A., Hatcher, R. L., & Rodolfa, E. R. (2009). Competency assessment toolkit for professional psychology. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3(4, Suppl.), S27-S45. doi:10.1037/a0015833. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015833
Kaslow, N. J., Rubin, N. J., Bebeau, M. J., Leigh, I. W., Lichtenberg, J. W., Nelson, P. D., & Smith, I. L. (2007a). Guiding principles and recommendations for the assessment of competence. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38(5), 441. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.38.5.441. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.38.5.441
Kaslow, N. J., Rubin, N. J., Forrest, L., Elman, N. S., Van Horne, B. A., Jacobs, S. C. & Thorn, B.E. (2007b). Recognizing, assessing, and intervening with problems of professional competence. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 479-492. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.38.5.479. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.38.5.479
Kenkel, M. B., & Peterson, R. L. (Eds.) (2009). Competency-based Education for Professional Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/12068-000
Kline, R. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Koddebusch, C., & Hermann, C. (2018). A proposed conceptualization of therapeutic competence: The three-level model. Research in Psychotherapy: Psychopathology, Process and Outcome, 21(1), 286. doi:10.4081/ripppo.2018.286. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/ripppo.2018.286
Koddebusch, C., & Hermann, C. (2019). Multi-informant assessment of therapeutic competence: Development and initial validation of a set of measurements. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 19(1), 15-28.
Kühne, F., Meister, R., Maaß, U., Paunov, T., & Weck, F. (2020). How reliable are therapeutic competence ratings? Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 44(2), 241-257. doi:10.1007/s10608-019-10056-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-019-10056-5
Leigh, I. W., Smith, I. L., Bebeau, M. J., Lichtenberg, J. W, Nelson, P. D., Pornoy, S., & Kaslow, N. J. (2007). Competency assessment models. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38(5), 463-473. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.38.5.463. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.38.5.463
Lucia, A. D., & Lepsinger, R. (1999). Art & science of competency models. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Lunt, I. (2008). Psychologist qualifications in Europe: Common standard for quality and mobility. Australian Psychologist, 43(4), 222-230. doi:10.1080/00050060802488026. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00050060802488026
Lunt, I., Bartran, B., Döpping, J., Georgas, J., Jern, J., & Hermann, E. (2001). A Framework for Education and Training for Psychologists in Europe. Final report submitted to Leonardo da Vinci Programme.
Manring, J., Beitman, B. D., & Dewan, M. J. (2003). Evaluating competence in psychotherapy. Academic Psychiatry, 27, 136-144. doi:10.1176/appi.ap.27.3.136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ap.27.3.136
Mathieson, F. M., Barnfield, T., & Beaumont, G. (2009). Are we as good as we think we are? Self-assessment versus other forms of assessment of competence in psychotherapy. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 2(1), 43-50. doi:10.1017/S1754470X08000081. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1754470X08000081
McManus, F., Rakovshik, S., Kennerley, H., Fennell, M., & Westbrook, D. (2012). An investigation of the accuracy of therapists’ self‐assessment of cognitive‐behaviour therapy skills. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(3), 292-306. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8260.2011.02028.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.2011.02028.x
Mentkowski, M., Rogers, G., Doherty, A., Loacker, G., Hart, J. R., Rickards, W., & Roth, J. (2000). Learning that lasts: Integrating learning, development, and performance in college and beyond. Jossey-Bass.
Messina, I., Gelo, O. C. G., Sambin, M., Bianco, F., Mosconi, A., Fenelli, A., Curto, M., Gullo, S., & Orlinsky, D. (2018). Trainees’ self‐evaluation of their development as psychotherapists: An Italian contribution to an international collaborative study on psychotherapy training. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 25(2), 338-347. doi: 10.1002/cpp.2165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2165
Muse, K. & McManus, F. (2013). A systematic review of methods for assessing competence in cognitive-behavioural therapy. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(3), 484-499. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2013.01.010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.01.010
Nelson, T. S., Chenail, R. J., Alexander, J. F., Crane, D. R., Johnson, S. M., & Schwallie, L. (2007). The development of core competencies for the practice of marriage and family therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33, 417-438. doi:10.1111/j.1752-0606.2007.00042.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2007.00042.x
Orlinsky, D. E., & Rønnestad, M. H. (2005). How psychotherapists develop: A study of therapeutic work and professional growth. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/11157-000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/11157-000
Panadero, E., Jonnson, A., & Botella, J. (2017). Effects of self-assessment on self-regulated learning and self-efficacy: Four meta-analyses. Educational Research Review, 22, 74-98. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2017.08.004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2017.08.004
Patel, V., Swartz, L., & Cohen, A. (2005). The evidence for mental health promotion in developing countries. In: H. Herrman, S. Saxena, & R. Moodie (Eds.), Promoting Mental Health: Concepts, Emerging Evidence, Practice (pp. 189-202). Geneva: World Health Organization.
Peterson, R. L., McHolland, J. D., Bent, R. J., David-Russell, E., Edwall, G. E., Polite, K., & Stricker, G. (Eds.). (1992). The core curriculum in professional psychology. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10103-000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/10103-000
Peterson, R. L., Peterson, D. R., Abrams, J. C., & Stricker, G. (1997). The National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology educational model. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28(4), 373-386. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.28.4.373. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.28.4.373
Plakun, E. M., Sudak, D. M., & Goldberg, D. (2009). The Y model: An integrated, evidence-based approach to teaching psychotherapy competencies. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 15(1), 5-11. doi:10.1097/01.pra.0000344914.54082.eb. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.pra.0000344914.54082.eb
Plantade-Gipch, A., Van Broeck, N., Lowet, K., Karayianni, E., & Karekla, M. (2020). Reflecting on psychotherapy practice for psychologists: Toward guidelines for competencies and practices. Clinical Psychology in Europe, 2(4), 1-9. doi:10.32872/cpe.v2i4.2601. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32872/cpe.v2i4.2601
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2006). The content validity index: Are you sure you know what’s being reported? Critique and recommendations. Research in nursing & health, 29(5), 489-497. doi:10.1002/nur.20147. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.20147
Rief, W. (2021). Moving from tradition-based to competence-based psychotherapy. Evidence Based Mental Health, 24(3), 115-120. doi:10.1136/ebmental-2020-300219. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/ebmental-2020-300219
Rief, W., Schramm, E., & Strauß, B. (Eds.). (2021). Psychotherapie: Ein kompetenzorientiertes Lehrbuch. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Roberts, M. C., Borden, K. A., Christiansen, M. D., & Lopez, S. J. (2005). Fostering a culture shift: Assessment of competence in the education and careers of professional psychologists. Professional psychology: research and practice, 36(4), 355-361. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.36.4.355. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.36.4.355
Rodolfa, E., & Schaffer, J. (2019). Challanges to psychology education and training in the culture of competence. American Psychologist, 74(9), 1118-1128. doi:10.1037/amp0000513. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000513
Rodolfa, E., Baker, J., DeMers, S., & Webb, C. (2014). Professional psychology competency initiatives: Implications for training, regulation, and practice. South African Journal of Psychology, 44(2), 121-135. doi:10.1177/0081246314522371. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0081246314522371
Roth, A., Hill, A., & Pilling, S. (2009). The competences required to deliver effective humanistic psychological therapies. London: University College London.
Rubin, N. J., Bebeau, M., Leigh, I. W., Lichtenberg, J. W., Nelson, P. D., Portnoy, S., Smith, I. L., & Kaslow, N. J. (2007). The competency movement within psychology: An historical perspective. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38(5), 452-462. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.38.5.452. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.38.5.452
Ruscio, J. (2007). The clinician as subject: Practictioners are prone to the same judgment errors as everyone else. In S. O. Lilienfeld & W. T. O’Donohue (Eds.), Great ideas of clinical science: 17 principles that every mental health professional should understand (pp. 29-47). New York, NY: Routledge.
Rychen, D. S. E., & Salganik, L. H. E. (2001). Defining and selecting key competencies. Hogrefe & Huber publishers.
Sburlati, E. S., & Bennett‐Levy, J. (2014). Self‐assessment of our competence as therapists. In E. S. Sburlati, H. J. Lyneham, C. A. Schniering, & R. M. Rapee (Eds.), Evidence‐Based CBT for Anxiety and Depression in Children and Adolescents: A Competencies‐Based Approach (pp. 23-35). John Wiley & Sons. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118500576.ch3
Schwartz-Mette, R. A. (2009). Challenges in addressing graduate student impairment in academic professional psychology programs. Ethics & Behavior, 19(2), 91-102. doi:10.1037%2Ftep0000221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10508420902768973
Simonds, J., Behrens, E., & Holzbauer, J. (2017). Competency-based education in a traditional higher education setting: A case study of an introduction to psychology course. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higer Education, 29(2), 412-428.
Sperry, L. (2010a). Highly effective therapy: Developing essential clinical competencies in counseling and psychotherapy. Taylor & Francis.
Sperry, L. (2010b). Core Competencies in Counseling and Psychotherapy. Becoming a Highly Competent and Effective Therapist. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203893999
Stein, D. M., & Lambert, M. J. (1995). Graduate training in psychotherapy: are therapy outcomes enhanced?. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 63(2), 182-196. doi:10.1037//0022-006x.63.2.182. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.63.2.182
Streiner, D. L. (1994). Figuring out factors: the use and misuse of factor analysis. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39(3), 135-140. doi:10.1177/070674379403900303. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/070674379403900303
Sumerall, S. W., Lopez, S. J., & Oehlert, M. E. (2000). Competency-based education and training in psychology: A primer. Charles C Thomas Publisher.
Taylor, J., & Neimeyer, G. J. (2017). Continuing education and lifelong learning strategies. In S. Walfish, J. E. Barnett, & J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Handbook of private practice: Keys to success for mental health practioners (pp. 602-618). Oxford Univeristy Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/med:psych/9780190272166.003.0046
Thériault, A., & Gazzola, N. (2010). Therapist feeling of incompetence and suboptimal processes in psychotherapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 40, 233-243. doi:10.1007/s10879-010-9147-z. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10879-010-9147-z
Ularntinon, S., & Friedbaeg, R. D. (2016). The SELF: A supervisory tool for enhancing residents’ self-reflective learning in CBT with youth. Academic Psychiatry, 40(1), 172-176. doi:10.1007/s40596-014-0264-y. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40596-014-0264-y
Vacha-Haase, T., Elman, N. S., Forrest, L., Kallaugher, J., Lease, S. H., Veilleux, J. C., & Kaslow, N. J. (2019). Remedetian plans for trainees with problems of professional competence. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 13(4), 239-246. doi:10.1037/tep0000221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/tep0000221
Van Deurzen, E. (2001). Psychotherapy training in Europe: Similarities and differences. European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling & Health, 4(3), 357-371. doi:10.1080/13642530210126275. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13642530210126275
Walfish, S., McAlister, B., O’Donnell, P., & Lambert, M. J. (2012). An investigation of self-assessment bias in mental health providers. Psychological Reports, 110(2), 639-644. doi:10.2466/02.07.17.PR0.110.2.639-644. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2466/02.07.17.PR0.110.2.639-644
Waller, D. (2001). Response to the special edition on psychotherapy in Europe: Can there be a European psychotherapy? European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling & Health, 4(3), 417-427. doi:10.1080/13642530210131459. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13642530210131459
Walsh, L. M., Roddy, M. K., Scott, K., Lewis, C. C., & Jensen-Doss, A. (2019). A meta-analysis of the effect of therapist experience on outcomes for clients with internalizing disorders. Psychotherapy research : journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, 29(7), 846-859. doi:10.1080/10503307.2018.1469802. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10503307.2018.1469802
Wise, E. H., & Reuman, L. (2019). Promoting competent and flourishing life-long practice for psychologists: A communitarian perspective. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 50(2), 129-135. doi:10.1037/pro0000226. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/pro0000226
World Health Organization. (2004). Promoting mental health: Concepts, emerging evidence, practice: Summary report. World Health Organization.
Yan, Z. (2020). Self-assessment in the process of self-regulated learning and its relationship with academic achievement. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 45(2), 224-238. doi:10.1080/ 02602938.2019.1629390. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2019.1629390
Young, C. (2011). Twenty different definitions of European psychotherapy. International Journal of Psychotherapy, 15(1), 23.
Young, C., Szyszkowitz, T., Oudijk, R., Schultess, P., & Stabingis, A. (2013). The EAP project to establish the professional competencies of a European psychotherapist. International Journal of Psychotherapy, 17(2), 40-58.

How to Cite

Settanni, M., Bronzini, M. ., Carzedda, G. ., Godino, G. ., Manca, M. L. ., Martini, L. ., Provvedi, G. ., Quilghini, F., Zucconi, A. ., & Francesetti, G. (2022). Introducing the QACP: development and preliminary validation of an instrument to measure psychotherapist’s core competencies. Research in Psychotherapy: Psychopathology, Process and Outcome, 25(2). https://doi.org/10.4081/ripppo.2022.599